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¿Cuál es la forma más sencilla y sólida de obtener la ubicación actual del usuario en Android?

Solución:

Esto es lo que hago:

  1. En primer lugar, compruebo qué proveedores están habilitados. Algunos pueden estar deshabilitados en el dispositivo, otros pueden estar deshabilitados en el manifiesto de la aplicación.
  2. Si hay algún proveedor disponible, inicio los escuchas de ubicación y el temporizador de tiempo de espera. En mi ejemplo, son 20 segundos, puede que no sea suficiente para el GPS, por lo que puede ampliarlo.
  3. Si obtengo una actualización del oyente de ubicación, uso el valor proporcionado. Dejo de escuchar y cronometrar.
  4. Si no recibo ninguna actualización y transcurre el tiempo, tengo que usar los últimos valores conocidos.
  5. Agarro los últimos valores conocidos de los proveedores disponibles y elijo el más reciente de ellos.

Así es como uso mi clase:

LocationResult locationResult = new LocationResult(){
    @Override
    public void gotLocation(Location location){
        //Got the location!
    }
};
MyLocation myLocation = new MyLocation();
myLocation.getLocation(this, locationResult);

Y aquí está la clase MyLocation:

import java.util.Timer;
import java.util.TimerTask;
import android.content.Context;
import android.location.Location;
import android.location.LocationListener;
import android.location.LocationManager;
import android.os.Bundle;

public class MyLocation {
    Timer timer1;
    LocationManager lm;
    LocationResult locationResult;
    boolean gps_enabled=false;
    boolean network_enabled=false;

    public boolean getLocation(Context context, LocationResult result)
    {
        //I use LocationResult callback class to pass location value from MyLocation to user code.
        locationResult=result;
        if(lm==null)
            lm = (LocationManager) context.getSystemService(Context.LOCATION_SERVICE);

        //exceptions will be thrown if provider is not permitted.
        try{gps_enabled=lm.isProviderEnabled(LocationManager.GPS_PROVIDER);}catch(Exception ex){}
        try{network_enabled=lm.isProviderEnabled(LocationManager.NETWORK_PROVIDER);}catch(Exception ex){}

        //don't start listeners if no provider is enabled
        if(!gps_enabled && !network_enabled)
            return false;

        if(gps_enabled)
            lm.requestLocationUpdates(LocationManager.GPS_PROVIDER, 0, 0, locationListenerGps);
        if(network_enabled)
            lm.requestLocationUpdates(LocationManager.NETWORK_PROVIDER, 0, 0, locationListenerNetwork);
        timer1=new Timer();
        timer1.schedule(new GetLastLocation(), 20000);
        return true;
    }

    LocationListener locationListenerGps = new LocationListener() {
        public void onLocationChanged(Location location) {
            timer1.cancel();
            locationResult.gotLocation(location);
            lm.removeUpdates(this);
            lm.removeUpdates(locationListenerNetwork);
        }
        public void onProviderDisabled(String provider) {}
        public void onProviderEnabled(String provider) {}
        public void onStatusChanged(String provider, int status, Bundle extras) {}
    };

    LocationListener locationListenerNetwork = new LocationListener() {
        public void onLocationChanged(Location location) {
            timer1.cancel();
            locationResult.gotLocation(location);
            lm.removeUpdates(this);
            lm.removeUpdates(locationListenerGps);
        }
        public void onProviderDisabled(String provider) {}
        public void onProviderEnabled(String provider) {}
        public void onStatusChanged(String provider, int status, Bundle extras) {}
    };

    class GetLastLocation extends TimerTask {
        @Override
        public void run() {
             lm.removeUpdates(locationListenerGps);
             lm.removeUpdates(locationListenerNetwork);

             Location net_loc=null, gps_loc=null;
             if(gps_enabled)
                 gps_loc=lm.getLastKnownLocation(LocationManager.GPS_PROVIDER);
             if(network_enabled)
                 net_loc=lm.getLastKnownLocation(LocationManager.NETWORK_PROVIDER);

             //if there are both values use the latest one
             if(gps_loc!=null && net_loc!=null){
                 if(gps_loc.getTime()>net_loc.getTime())
                     locationResult.gotLocation(gps_loc);
                 else
                     locationResult.gotLocation(net_loc);
                 return;
             }

             if(gps_loc!=null){
                 locationResult.gotLocation(gps_loc);
                 return;
             }
             if(net_loc!=null){
                 locationResult.gotLocation(net_loc);
                 return;
             }
             locationResult.gotLocation(null);
        }
    }

    public static abstract class LocationResult{
        public abstract void gotLocation(Location location);
    }
}

Es posible que alguien también quiera modificar mi lógica. Por ejemplo, si recibe una actualización del proveedor de red, no detenga a los oyentes sino que continúe esperando. El GPS brinda datos más precisos, por lo que vale la pena esperarlo. Si el temporizador se agota y tiene una actualización de la red pero no del GPS, puede usar el valor proporcionado por la red.

Un enfoque más es utilizar LocationClient http://developer.android.com/training/location/retrieve-current.html. Pero requiere que la aplicación de Google Play Services esté instalada en el dispositivo del usuario.

Después de buscar la mejor implementación sobre cómo obtener la mejor ubicación precisa del usuario, logré combinar todos los mejores métodos y crear la siguiente clase:

/**
 * Retrieve accurate location from GPS or network services. 
 * 
 *
 * Class usage example:
 * 
 * public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
 *      ...
 *      my_location = new MyLocation();
 *      my_location.init(main.this, locationResult);
 * }
 * 
 * 
 * public LocationResult locationResult = new LocationResult(){
 *      @Override
 *      public void gotLocation(final Location location){
 *          // do something
 *          location.getLongitude();
 *          location.getLatitude();
 *      }
 *  };
 */
class MyLocation{

    /**
     * If GPS is enabled. 
     * Use minimal connected satellites count.
     */
    private static final int min_gps_sat_count = 5;

    /**
     * Iteration step time.
     */
    private static final int iteration_timeout_step = 500;

    LocationResult locationResult;
    private Location bestLocation = null;
    private Handler handler = new Handler();
    private LocationManager myLocationManager; 
    public Context context;

    private boolean gps_enabled = false;

    private int counts    = 0;
    private int sat_count = 0;

    private Runnable showTime = new Runnable() {

         public void run() {
            boolean stop = false;
            counts++;
            System.println("counts=" + counts);

            //if timeout (1 min) exceeded, stop tying
            if(counts > 120){
                stop = true;
            }

            //update last best location
            bestLocation = getLocation(context);

            //if location is not ready or don`t exists, try again
            if(bestLocation == null && gps_enabled){
                System.println("BestLocation not ready, continue to wait");
                handler.postDelayed(this, iteration_timeout_step);
            }else{
                //if best location is known, calculate if we need to continue to look for better location
                //if gps is enabled and min satellites count has not been connected or min check count is smaller then 4 (2 sec)  
                if(stop == false && !needToStop()){
                    System.println("Connected " + sat_count + " sattelites. continue waiting..");
                    handler.postDelayed(this, iteration_timeout_step);
                }else{
                    System.println("#########################################");
                    System.println("BestLocation finded return result to main. sat_count=" + sat_count);
                    System.println("#########################################");

                    // removing all updates and listeners
                    myLocationManager.removeUpdates(gpsLocationListener);
                    myLocationManager.removeUpdates(networkLocationListener);    
                    myLocationManager.removeGpsStatusListener(gpsStatusListener);
                    sat_count = 0;

                    // send best location to locationResult
                    locationResult.gotLocation(bestLocation);
                }
            }
         }
    };

    /**
     * Determine if continue to try to find best location
     */
    private Boolean needToStop(){

        if(!gps_enabled){
                          return true;
                     }
          else if(counts <= 4){
                return false;
            }
            if(sat_count < min_gps_sat_count){
                //if 20-25 sec and 3 satellites found then stop
                if(counts >= 40 && sat_count >= 3){
                    return true;
                }
                return false;
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * Best location abstract result class
     */
    public static abstract class LocationResult{
         public abstract void gotLocation(Location location);
     }

    /**
     * Initialize starting values and starting best location listeners
     * 
     * @param Context ctx
     * @param LocationResult result
     */
    public void init(Context ctx, LocationResult result){
        context = ctx;
        locationResult = result;

        myLocationManager = (LocationManager) context.getSystemService(Context.LOCATION_SERVICE);

        gps_enabled = (Boolean) myLocationManager.isProviderEnabled(LocationManager.GPS_PROVIDER);

        bestLocation = null;
        counts = 0;

        // turning on location updates
        myLocationManager.requestLocationUpdates("network", 0, 0, networkLocationListener);
        myLocationManager.requestLocationUpdates("gps", 0, 0, gpsLocationListener);
        myLocationManager.addGpsStatusListener(gpsStatusListener);

        // starting best location finder loop
        handler.postDelayed(showTime, iteration_timeout_step);
    }

    /**
     * GpsStatus listener. OnChainged counts connected satellites count.
     */
    public final GpsStatus.Listener gpsStatusListener = new GpsStatus.Listener() {
        public void onGpsStatusChanged(int event) {

             if(event == GpsStatus.GPS_EVENT_SATELLITE_STATUS){
                try {
                    // Check number of satellites in list to determine fix state
                     GpsStatus status = myLocationManager.getGpsStatus(null);
                     Iterable<GpsSatellite>satellites = status.getSatellites();

                     sat_count = 0;

                     Iterator<GpsSatellite>satI = satellites.iterator();
                     while(satI.hasNext()) {
                         GpsSatellite satellite = satI.next();
                         System.println("Satellite: snr=" + satellite.getSnr() + ", elevation=" + satellite.getElevation());                         
                         sat_count++;
                     }
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                    sat_count = min_gps_sat_count + 1;
                }

                 System.println("#### sat_count = " + sat_count);
             }
         }
    };

    /**
     * Gps location listener.
     */
    public final LocationListener gpsLocationListener = new LocationListener(){
        @Override
         public void onLocationChanged(Location location){

        }
         public void onProviderDisabled(String provider){}
         public void onProviderEnabled(String provider){}
         public void onStatusChanged(String provider, int status, Bundle extras){}
    }; 

    /**
     * Network location listener.
     */
    public final LocationListener networkLocationListener = new LocationListener(){
        @Override
         public void onLocationChanged(Location location){

        }
         public void onProviderDisabled(String provider){}
         public void onProviderEnabled(String provider){}
         public void onStatusChanged(String provider, int status, Bundle extras){}
    }; 


    /**
     * Returns best location using LocationManager.getBestProvider()
     * 
     * @param context
     * @return Location|null
     */
    public static Location getLocation(Context context){
        System.println("getLocation()");

        // fetch last known location and update it
        try {
            LocationManager lm = (LocationManager) context.getSystemService(Context.LOCATION_SERVICE);

            Criteria criteria = new Criteria();
            criteria.setAccuracy(Criteria.ACCURACY_FINE);
             criteria.setAltitudeRequired(false);
             criteria.setBearingRequired(false);
             criteria.setCostAllowed(true);
             String strLocationProvider = lm.getBestProvider(criteria, true);

             System.println("strLocationProvider=" + strLocationProvider);
             Location location = lm.getLastKnownLocation(strLocationProvider);
             if(location != null){
                return location;
             }
             return null;
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
            return null;
        }
    }
}

Esta clase intenta conectarse a min_gps_sat_count satélites si el GPS está habilitado. Más devoluciones LocationManager.getBestProvider() localización. ¡Comprueba el código!

Con la solución de Fedor, experimenté múltiples ejecuciones de la devolución de llamada. gotLocation. Parece deberse a un condición de carrera en el anulado LocationListener.onLocationChanged método, cuando el método gotLocation es 'Tiempo suficiente'. No estoy seguro, pero supongo removeUpdates evita la puesta en cola de mensajes nuevos en la cola de Looper, pero no elimina los que ya están en cola pero que aún no se han consumido. De ahí la condición de carrera.

Para reducir la probabilidad de este comportamiento incorrecto, es posible llamar a removeUpdates antes de activar el evento onLocationChanged, pero aún tenemos la condición de carrera.

La mejor solución que encontré es reemplazar requestLocationUpdates con requestSingleUpdate.

Esta es mi versión, basada en la solución de Fedor, usando un Handler para enviar un mensaje al hilo del looper:

public class LocationResolver {
    private Timer timer;
    private LocationManager locationManager;
    private LocationResult locationResult;
    private boolean gpsEnabled = false;
    private boolean networkEnabled = false;
    private Handler locationTimeoutHandler;

    private final Callback locationTimeoutCallback = new Callback() {
        public boolean handleMessage(Message msg) {
            locationTimeoutFunc();
            return true;
        }

        private void locationTimeoutFunc() {   
            locationManager.removeUpdates(locationListenerGps);
            locationManager.removeUpdates(locationListenerNetwork);

            Location networkLocation = null, gpsLocation = null;
            if (gpsEnabled)
                gpsLocation = locationManager.getLastKnownLocation(LocationManager.GPS_PROVIDER);
            if (networkEnabled)
                networkLocation = locationManager.getLastKnownLocation(LocationManager.NETWORK_PROVIDER);

            // if there are both values use the latest one
            if (gpsLocation != null && networkLocation != null) {
                if (gpsLocation.getTime() > networkLocation.getTime())
                    locationResult.gotLocation(gpsLocation);
                else
                    locationResult.gotLocation(networkLocation);
                return;
            }

            if (gpsLocation != null) {
                locationResult.gotLocation(gpsLocation);
                return;
            }
            if (networkLocation != null) {
                locationResult.gotLocation(networkLocation);
                return;
            }
            locationResult.gotLocation(null);           
        }
    };
    private final LocationListener locationListenerGps = new LocationListener() {
        public void onLocationChanged(Location location) {              
            timer.cancel();
            locationResult.gotLocation(location);
            locationManager.removeUpdates(this);
            locationManager.removeUpdates(locationListenerNetwork);
        }

        public void onProviderDisabled(String provider) {
        }

        public void onProviderEnabled(String provider) {
        }

        public void onStatusChanged(String provider, int status, Bundle extras) {
        }
    };
    private final LocationListener locationListenerNetwork = new LocationListener() {
        public void onLocationChanged(Location location) {    
            timer.cancel(); 
            locationResult.gotLocation(location);
            locationManager.removeUpdates(this);
            locationManager.removeUpdates(locationListenerGps);
        }

        public void onProviderDisabled(String provider) {
        }

        public void onProviderEnabled(String provider) {
        }

        public void onStatusChanged(String provider, int status, Bundle extras) {
        }
    };

    public void prepare() {
        locationTimeoutHandler = new Handler(locationTimeoutCallback);
    }

    public synchronized boolean getLocation(Context context, LocationResult result, int maxMillisToWait) {
        locationResult = result;
        if (locationManager == null)
            locationManager = (LocationManager) context.getSystemService(Context.LOCATION_SERVICE);

        // exceptions will be thrown if provider is not permitted.
        try {
            gpsEnabled = locationManager.isProviderEnabled(LocationManager.GPS_PROVIDER);
        } catch (Exception ex) {
        }
        try {
            networkEnabled = locationManager.isProviderEnabled(LocationManager.NETWORK_PROVIDER);
        } catch (Exception ex) {
        }

        // don't start listeners if no provider is enabled
        if (!gpsEnabled && !networkEnabled)
            return false;

        if (gpsEnabled)
            locationManager.requestSingleUpdate(LocationManager.GPS_PROVIDER, locationListenerGps, Looper.myLooper());
            //locationManager.requestLocationUpdates(LocationManager.GPS_PROVIDER, 0, 0, locationListenerGps);
        if (networkEnabled)
            locationManager.requestSingleUpdate(LocationManager.NETWORK_PROVIDER, locationListenerNetwork, Looper.myLooper());
            //locationManager.requestLocationUpdates(LocationManager.NETWORK_PROVIDER, 0, 0, locationListenerNetwork);

        timer = new Timer();
        timer.schedule(new GetLastLocationTask(), maxMillisToWait);
        return true;
    }

    private class GetLastLocationTask extends TimerTask {
        @Override
        public void run() { 
            locationTimeoutHandler.sendEmptyMessage(0);
        }
    }

    public static abstract class LocationResult {
        public abstract void gotLocation(Location location);
    }
}

Utilizo esta clase de un hilo de bucle personalizado, como el siguiente:

public class LocationGetter {
    private final Context context;
    private Location location = null;
    private final Object gotLocationLock = new Object();
    private final LocationResult locationResult = new LocationResult() {            
        @Override
        public void gotLocation(Location location) {
            synchronized (gotLocationLock) {
                LocationGetter.this.location = location;
                gotLocationLock.notifyAll();
                Looper.myLooper().quit();
            }
        }
    };

    public LocationGetter(Context context) {
        if (context == null)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("context == null");

        this.context = context;
    }

    public synchronized Coordinates getLocation(int maxWaitingTime, int updateTimeout) {
        try {
            final int updateTimeoutPar = updateTimeout;
            synchronized (gotLocationLock) {            
                new Thread() {
                    public void run() {
                        Looper.prepare();
                        LocationResolver locationResolver = new LocationResolver();
                        locationResolver.prepare();
                        locationResolver.getLocation(context, locationResult, updateTimeoutPar);
                        Looper.loop();
                    }
                }.start();

                gotLocationLock.wait(maxWaitingTime);
            }
        } catch (InterruptedException e1) {
            e1.printStackTrace();
        }

        if (location != null)
            coordinates = new Coordinates(location.getLatitude(), location.getLongitude());
        else
            coordinates = Coordinates.UNDEFINED;
        return coordinates; 
    }
}

donde Coordenadas es una clase simple con dos propiedades: latitud y longitud.

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